Interested in becoming an ADAPT Certified Functional Health Coach? Enrollment is open now and closes September 30thLearn More

Biofilm: What It Is and How to Treat It

Published on


Do you have patients with infections that subside for awhile but then reappear? Bacterial and fungal biofilms might be to blame. Read on to learn about biofilms and how to treat them.

Most Bacteria Are Present in Biofilms, Not as Single-Acting Cells

The popular image of bacteria depicts single cells floating around, releasing toxins and damaging the host. However, most bacteria do not exist in this planktonic form in the human body, but rather in sessile communities called biofilms. To form a biofilm, bacteria first adhere to a surface and then generate a polysaccharide matrix that also sequesters calcium, magnesium, iron, or whatever minerals are available.

Within a biofilm, one or more types of bacteria and/or fungi share nutrients and DNA and undergo changes to evade the immune system. Since it requires less oxygen and fewer nutrients and alters the pH at the core, the biofilm is a hostile community for most antibiotics. In addition, the biofilm forms a physical barrier that keeps most immune cells from detecting the pathogenic bacteria (1, 2).

The Current Model of Care Misses the Mark

The current model of care usually assumes acute infections caused by planktonic bacteria. However, since the vast majority of bacteria are hidden in biofilms, healthcare providers are treating most illnesses ineffectively. According to the NIH, more than 80 percent of human bacterial infections are associated with bacterial biofilm (3). While planktonic bacteria can become antibiotic resistant through gene mutations, a biofilm is often antibiotic resistant for many reasons—physical, chemical, and genetic. Treating illnesses associated with biofilms using antibiotics is an uphill battle. For example, in patients suffering from IBD, antibiotics appear initially to work, only to be followed by a “rebound,” where the symptoms again flare up, presumably due to bacteria evading the antibiotic within a biofilm (4).

According to the NIH, more than 80% of human bacterial infections are associated with biofilms.

Biofilms Are Hidden in the Nasal Passageways and GI Tract

Biofilms are well-known problems associated with endoscopic procedures, vascular grafts, medical implants, dental prosthetics, and severe dermal wounds. Biofilms found along the epithelial lining of the nasal passageways and GI tract are less understood.

The GI tract is an ideal environment for bacteria, fungi, and associated biofilms because of its huge surface area and constant influx of nutrients (4). For protection, the GI epithelium is lined with viscoelastic mucus, but it can be damaged in patients with excessive inflammation, IBD, and other conditions. This creates an opportunity for bacteria to attach to the surface and begin their biofilm construction. The epithelium to which it is attached is altered and often damaged (5, 6).

Biofilms Are Difficult to Diagnose

A number of problems make biofilms difficult to detect.

  • First, bacteria within the biofilm are tucked away in the matrix. Therefore, swabs and cultures often show up negative. Stool samples usually do not contain the biofilm bacteria, either.
  • Second, biofilm samples within the GI tract are difficult to obtain. The procedure would require an invasive endoscope and foreknowledge of where the biofilm is located. What’s more, no current procedure to remove biofilm from the lining of the GI tract exists.
  • Third, biofilm bacteria are not easily cultured. Therefore, even if you are able to obtain a sample, it may again test negative because of the microbes’ adapted lower nutrient requirements, rendering normal culture techniques null (7).
  • Fourth, biofilms might also play a role in the healthy gut, making it difficult to distinguish between pathogenic and healthy communities (4, 7).

Although a culture might come back negative, the microbes in a biofilm could still be pumping out toxins that cause illness. Some clinicians look for mycotoxins in the urine to identify biofilms (8), but I am not impressed by the research behind it yet. Because the bacteria sequester minerals from the host, mineral deficiency is probably associated with the presence of biofilms, although mineral deficiencies are all too common in the general population to use this alone as a diagnostic criterion.

Biofilms in the Background of Many Diseases

The medical community is increasingly dealing with antibacterial-resistant infections, with evidence of a biofilm at work behind the scenes:

  • Up to one-third of patients with strep throat, often caused by pyogenes, do not respond to antibiotics (9). In one study, all 99 strep throat-causing bacterial isolates formed biofilms (9).
  • Ten to 20 percent of people infected with Lyme disease, caused by burgdorferi, have prolonged symptoms, possibly due to antibiotic resistance and/or biofilm presence (10, 11).
  • Lupus flare-ups are induced by infection, inflammation, or trauma. In this autoimmune disease, cell death by NETosis instead of apoptosis turns the immune system against itself (12). Biofilms are suspected to be involved (13).
  • For chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), “topical antibacterial or antifungal agents have shown no benefit over placebo in random controlled trials” (14). Bacterial and fungal biofilms are consistently found in these patients’ nasal passageways (14, 15).
  • Antibiotic treatment of irritable bowel disease (IBD) can work for a time, but flare-ups generally continue throughout a person’s life. Biofilms have been linked to both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (16, 17, 18).

Biofilms have also been implicated in chronic ear infections, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and acid reflux (4, 19, 20).

Peta Cohen, a pioneer in treating autism with a biomedical and nutritional approach, has found evidence of biofilms in autistic patients. When she disrupts the biofilm in these patients, she sees a huge “offload” of heavy metals in the urine and stool. Autistic individuals often have elevated mercury and lead levels (21). Bacteria aren’t choosy about which minerals they sequester during biofilm construction, and so Dr. Cohen’s explanation is that these patients also suffer from GI biofilms loaded with mercury and other heavy metals. Her experiences are as of yet only anecdotal; a PubMed search for “autism and biofilm” yields zero results. Check out my podcast here for what I believe are underlying causes of autism.

How to Treat Biofilms

Antibiotic after antibiotic for IBD. Corticosteroids for CRS. If a biofilm is at work, these standard “treatments” aren’t curing anything. Clinicians instead need to break down the biofilm, attack the pathogenic bacteria within, and mop up the leftover matrix, DNA, and minerals.

Biofilm disruptors are the first course of action. Enzymes such as nattokinase and lumbrokinase have been used extensively as coatings on implants to fight biofilms (22, 23). Cohen’s protocol recommends half a 50mg capsule of nattokinase and half of a 20mg capsule of lumbrokinase for small children with chronic strep throat and autism. Other promising enzymes include proteases, plasmin, and streptokinase (24).

Mucolytic enzyme N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of glutathione and an antioxidant. Effective against biofilms on prosthetic devices, in vitro biofilms, and chronic respiratory infections (25, 26, 27, 28), NAC is recognized as a “powerful molecule” against biofilms (29).

Lauricidin (other forms: monolaurin, lauric acid, and glycerol monolaurate) is a natural surfactant found in coconut oil that helps inhibit the development of biofilms (30). In my practice, I also use it as an option for a gentler antimicrobial agent.

Colloidal silver is effective at treating topical biofilms, such as in wound dressings (31, 32). Applications in vivo are still under research. Although used successfully to treat a sheep model of bacterial sinusitis (33), colloidal silver did not show the same effectiveness in a small human trial (34, 35).

I recommend Klaire Labs InterFase Plus and Kirkman Biofilm Defense, two commercial products formulated to effectively disrupt biofilm.

Antimicrobial treatments follow biofilm disruptors. When necessary, I do use pharmaceutical antibiotics, but mixtures of herbal antimicrobials can be effective:

  • berberine
  • artemisinin
  • citrus seed extract
  • black walnut hulls
  • Artemisia herb
  • echinacea
  • goldenseal
  • gentian
  • fumitory
  • galbanum oil
  • oregano oil

Once the biofilm is destabilized and microbes are treated, binders help clean up the mess. EDTA disrupts biofilms and also chelates minerals in the matrix (36, 37). Chitosan and citrus pectin are two other options.

I can’t stress enough how important probiotics and prebiotics are in healing the gut and maintaining a healthy GI tract. Probiotics reduce pathogenic bacteria and have even been shown to disrupt the growth, adhesion, and activity of biofilms (38, 39). I recommend Primal Probiotics and Prebiogen or potato starch for prebiotics.

Hopefully the medical community will soon recognize biofilms as factors in many diseases and properly treat recalcitrant infections and illnesses.


  1. After years of gut problems (which started after amalgam removal and subsequent mercury toxicity.. and a cascade of problems to follow…leaky gut…hashimotos …etc) I thought I had parasites (in a rope shape) but finally figured out they were biofilms and not parasites. None of the above mentioned products, supplements, protocols worked for me.. I think I just made the biofilms angrier…now with mental/emotional/spiritual work I am much better / not perfect yet but it seems to me if I increase my body’s ability to heal itself and take care of these biofilms as it should I will be on my way to restored gut health after 6 years. Maybe these supplements work for others, but did not work for me. Thank you for the article on biofilms / very hard to find good info on them.

    • Same here Wendy. I spent 3 years doing all the right things with little results. When going to a silent Meditation Retreat a year ago, my body did an increadibly amount of releasing toxins (parasites and biofilm) and healing. I’ve kept with my practice and know that for me -releasing negativity, practicing presence and being in a space of appreciation, love and connecting into life on a deeper level, through both Dhamma and daily meditation has made a profound difference. I chalk it up to raising my energetic frequency.

    • Yes, important point…I think Chris in his articles about quality of life, connections with loved ones, relaxing, etc…he is trying to convey what you have found to work…

  2. What natural antimicrobial would you recommend after treating UTI biofilm. UTI is not mentioned above but you have another post related to biofilm and UTI.


    • I’ve been dealing with the same thing daily for 4 years. I would love to know if there is a link to the two in helping to finally get rid of this infection.

    • L.Crispatus has been found to be the beneficial bacteria missing in women with chronic UTIs. Also eat an Alkaline ash diet with foods high in proanthocyanidins (berries, chocolate…) as research has shown this combination keeps iron from feeding the pathogenic bacteria in your bladder. For immediate relief take Dmannose. Good luck!

    • There is some compelling research on D-mannose for UTI biofilm/bacteria, although not a lot. It’s worth a try if you haven’t already done so. Google it on pubmed if you would like more info.

  3. I too am interested in reaserch and also Inovate improvements on surgical instruments that are less
    Harmfull when Operating. I myself am reaserching on what i suffer with strep, Osophagitis,Hernia,Acid reflux. I have read alot of your comments and reasearch on the subject of certaine medical problems.
    which makes more sense than the Doctors of today England Practicing there Arcaike ways of relying on swabs more than they do with Blood tests, eaven so instead of looking into natural medicins, they seem to want to abort this in from some Hospitals that have allowed this in England. I am 72 years of age and my mind is still quite sharp. Whish there was more Institutes in England like your if so can you tell me where to get in touch with them, if there’s not then am doomed. Please ecuse my spelling. My Hobbies are reaserch,Inovation, oil paintings, and Poetry. I hope i have not Bored you i wish you all well my Phone number whould be better as i am not a wizz kid on a computors Phone number 07927945256. By

  4. Have had a swab test done at my surgery, nothing detected related to strep yet my Blood test did
    High white blood cells and Virus but they prefer to go by the negative swab. i dare say its another way in foobbing me off, not this old foegy. This is a common factors practiced with some doctors, prescribed nose sprays that only conjest me more after two days of use, Ear calm for swollen ear drums and swollen glands which they have repeated but not worked. I believe it could be strep
    as the blood test is more posative.If go back and staite this to them they will only look at me as if i come from another plannet Next time ill go back and paint myself green I suppose there comment will be (very interesting) My comment will be am not surprised. After 4 months of this stressfull infection
    i am totally stressed out, sleep deprivation, Paine, and discomfort, no appitite fatige. Some Drs will wake up and smell the coffee i hope. but most of them make proffit pushing Pharmacy drugs that are harmfull and could do more harm than goodby. Barbarara Spours Idun, my last message God bless you in what you do

  5. Hi Chris,
    Thank you for this article. One thing I have always wondered about biofilm disruption is if it can have a negative impact on beneficial bacterial colonies. Are only pathogenic bacteria associated with biofilms, or do healthy bacteria create biofilms as well? And, if the latter is the case, have you witnessed any negative impacts as a result of disrupting healthy biofilms?
    Thanks for all your work and insight!

  6. Dear Chris,
    With all due respect for your wealth of knowledge I present another view on biofilms…

    The current belief about biofilms depends first on which area of the body and what type of health issue it’s referring to, but generally speaking it refers to a film that forms when bacteria stick together on a surface and excrete a slimy, glue-like substance. It’s believed that we must break through this biofilm with various strategies so we can then kill off the bacteria.

    Biofilm (again, it’s not really an accurate name) really is just a lot of byproducts and old debris from a pathogen, mostly viruses, that turns into a sludge. Other bugs then can live in this sludge. It’s not a wall of film we need to break into. We simply need to treat the root cause of the byproducts and debris, which is most often a viral issue.
    Dr. Sherri Greene

  7. Biofilms can be a huge problem! I treat quite a few Lyme patients and I always focus on biofilms for those patients. I use serrapeptase, whole leaf stevia extract, and monolaurin as a baseline. I’ll often add Nattokinase as well I believe this makes a huge difference in these patients. I am starting Abx at the same time as well. Thanks for a great article!

  8. I have benefited from bentonite clay powder taken at night away from food etc and metallic implements. I understand that it disrupts GI biofilms.

    I want something for sinus biofilms.

  9. Great article! Yes, I had biofilms and used biofilm disrupter enzymes and herbal antimicrobials to treat. I would add Serrapeptase to the list of enzymes mentioned in the article as another great biofilm disrupter. I also took the anti-biofilm enzymes a good 8 to 12 hours before taking the antimicrobials so as to give time for the biofilms to be breached to allow the antimicrobials to work. Usually, I took the enzymes right before bedtime and took the antimicrobials early the next morning. I caution against using colloidal silver or oregano oil because I believe they are too strong in killing off bacteria and can induce dysbiosis in the gut making problems worse. I am also a big proponent of taking probiotics and prebiotics for healthy gut. And I am a big believer in using a great variety of each. I take Multi-Strain Probiotic by Innovix Labs which has 31 strains and 50 billion cfus per capsule. For prebioitcs, I take a mixture of inulin, GOS, polydextrose, larch tree fiber, acacia fiber, plantain flour, potato starch, hi-maize resistant starch, and oat fiber. Needless to say, I am extremely ‘regular’ in the bathroom dept. And I do want to mention how great I believe monolaurin is in treating infection. I feel that it has antimicrobial as well as anti-biofilm properties. Don’t buy the capsules, get the pellets. Inspired Nutrition sells it by the tub. Lauricidin is another manufacturer of the pellets. It was one of the main products that I credit with overcoming SIBO and yeast infection.

    • Hi Daniel,

      I’m interested in your prebiotic mix. What amounts are you doing and how are you handling the dosage and when? Also, what were your other amin products in treating your SIBO?
      Thank you

    • Please can you provide the protocol used in takin for biofilm and your probiotics. On this website. Thanks

  10. Biocidin along with other bio botanical products have worked. Has anyone else had luck with biocidin or use it?

    • Would this be with UTI’s? I would love to know a proper dose. I have had a lot of luck with D Mannose, but as soon as I stop it comes back. I wonder what would be a good length of time to take to eradicate the biofilm! And I have a chronic sinus infection, not sure what can erradicate it!

  11. My 5 year old son has type 1 diabetes and I was told by a local functional medicine practitioner that biofilm most likely had something to do with it. Do you think this is true and do you think I should treat him as if this is the issue?

  12. I had an overgrowth of H Pylori a few years ago and was treated with antibiotics. It got me most of the way towards healing, but when I’d over indulge over the holiday with sugar and holidays I would have a gut flare. Possibly candida or SIBO since those three can seem to trigger each other. The first time it happened I didn’t know what was happening and actually ended up in the hospital after a week of intense pain. The next time it happened I saw a connection and looked into chitosanase because I had heard of it from a MLM probiotic. That’s when I found Klaire Labs Interphase Plus. I used that with some oregano oil and it took care of the flare up much more quickly. I’ve continued with the Interphase and Primal Probiotics AND really reigned in sugar. I have been doing so much better with my digestion!

  13. Excellent article, further enforcing my experience with battling aspects causing severe Psoriasis. I had cleared my skin, but then BOOM, infection came back, worse than before. I was not doing any chelation at that time for heavy metals. I also had a root canal tooth pulled which exposed a large cyst. I know I am battling aggressive Strep. I know I am battling biofilms, their strongholds. Now that my gums and jaw have healed finally, I’m clearing up nicely, after years of crazy symptoms associated with reversal. I appreciate your awesome insight always, but in particular this piece and your teachings on the gut microbiota and plant and soil based organisms. They have spearheaded my natural healing practice in the proper direction to clear psoriasis and keep it gone for good.

  14. Thank you for the great article! I wonder if you have any research or thoughts on using essential oil blends for treating biofilms?
    I had struggled with Bio films for years. Ten years ago I often only had a bowel movement once a week or less. I had chronic fatigue, hoshimotos thyroiditis, fibromyalgia, chronic infections, bone on bone discs in my back, and depression.
    I have TOTALLY cleaned up my diet, gotten rid of my 8 mercury fillings, sleep with a high quality air filter, eliminated toxins in my body care and household products, meditate, do acupressure regularly, use a high quality water purifier, rarely eat out and am careful where I go when I do. I became a certified health coach 6 years ago and a certified essential oil coach a year ago. I am currently studying with the Institute for Functional Medicine. Things are going so much better!
    I still could never quite get where I wanted to be with my health. My functional medical doctor said it is because I have Bio films and we could never get a grip on it.
    I have figured out with essential oil blends that I believe I have finally gotten rid of them (or gotten them in a good balance). I only use the oils topically on the abdomen or face/neck as I found that ingesting them was too strong and did not make me feel good. I found that a longer duration going slow and easy was best. I have a blend that is I think like a wide spectrum natural antibiotic. It has oregano, ravensara, tea tree, eucalyptus, lemon, hyssop, and thyme. I used this blend at a 3% dilution which is recommended for topical use for about 2 months on my abdomen. I also use a blend that has bitter herbs that help to increase enzyme production and detoxifying herbs such as Angelica, ginger, fennel, anise, tarragon, basil, cilantro and more that I continue to use daily with just a minuscule amount of the anti microbial blend and a minuscule amount of anti inflammatory oils such as turmeric, black pepper, frankincense, copabia balsam and helichrysum. This blend has finally made my bowels move as they should according to the Bristol stool chart.
    I have been doing similar regiments for my clients and we are seeing great results. I wish there was more research on this. I would love to see more people benefit from this. I have found a few articles online about using essential oils for bio films but not a lot. Do you have any thoughts on this?

    • Hello Ms Khudson

      Is there anyway I can get in touch with you about learning how to dissolve the biofilm. Having difficulty in killing the disease.steve


  15. After a decade of a total health nightmare from failed dental implant surgeries (titanium screws in maxillary sinus) and a staggering amount of money spent on many interventions by dozens of well meaning but uninformed practitioners of all kinds, I’ve come to understand I’m my own best healer. My life has been dominated by biofilm which I can now keep in check but doubt I’ll be able to eradicate. Nevertheless I am grateful for such articles for validation and possibly some relief.

  16. I have SIBO and C. Difficile. I really don’t know how to use pro or prebiotics with the damn SIBO making me double over in pain when I use them. Soil based are okay, but don’t make up for the lack of lactobacillus or bifido species I need.

  17. Great article – thank you. Love your work and influence.
    Would be most interested to know your thoughts on using serrapeptase for biofilms.

  18. Any suggestion on how to introduce the biofilm reducing agents and antimicrobials into the prostate capsule where not only biofilms but calcifications harbor these pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and mycotoxins? That is the problem that standard urology has backed away from, resulting in continued infections and even prostate cancer. Systemic (oral) administrations of these enzymes and biofilm agents do not reach the congested prostate capsule. (I have read that Sanos Urology Clinic in Moscow, Russia, introduces Wobenzyme intra-uretheraly, in conjunction with their pulsating positive and negative pressure wave rectal balloon. The clinic claims a 90% cure rate for prostatitis.) Your thoughts would be appreciated.

    • I assume i have same disease as you, naming chronic prostatitis. I have a lot of biofilms too, with enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus and probably other germs. Unfortunately, i have no suggestion for you.
      I Hope news molecules / enzymes will be created for chronic prostatitis.
      Maybe using rectal route with suppositoires to reach the capsule better.

      Good luck

  19. Am a patient with cll,very curious about using diet to reverse chronic diseases, I advice my fellow patients on diet ,traditional foods,I strongly feel am in the right place

  20. One person had been taking Monolaurin on and off for 20 years for their Candida with good results but then it became ineffective and the infection returned. Interfase Plus was the answer, worked good after two weeks, 4 tabs twice a day on a empty stomach.

  21. May you be filled with loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity. With this article, you are once again light-years ahead of most of medicine. I often find your posts to cover all the issues I am trying to sort out–from dental orthoses to biofilms! Thank you for being who you are: researcher, practitioner, husband, father; kind soul. So much good info for me to use and share with my son on this cutting edge issue. 🙂

  22. A great article! Thanks for additional ideas. A few years back, 6 months or so of Lauricidin got amazing results re-balancing gut bacteria. Wild OregO often used, sporadically, sometimes neat mixed w honey. However, chronic sinus condition drove me nuts After antibiotics; for years. Now testing RESTORE nasal spray to see if it can reach further for long lasting lining repairs; slowly and finally making headway with leftovers from earlier attempts. No sense in extensive gut repairs first if sinus still draining, yes?

  23. Some of the more recent research with Monolaurin (Lauricidin) has reinforced our understanding of its biofilm-disrupting properties for Borrelia and Candida specifically. So for microbes where monolaurin is not directly active, it can help other agents work better for its biofilm-disrupting and anti-inflammatory/immune-balancing properties.

  24. Chris, you previously recommended a soil based probiotic, PrescriptAssist, why the change in recommendations?

  25. Can anyone help me understand why biofilms are only an issue with harmful bacteria? Don’t good bacteria have biofilms as well?

    When taking biofilm disrupters I have concerns that we disrupt normal healthy bacteria, too.

  26. I have a patient who has frequent sinus infections. Stool studies have identified many microbes in overgrowth. Different of courses if antimicrobials have not abolished the infections. I’m going to try her on Klairs interface plus. How much per day. And for how many weeks. Should she rest a few weeks after treatment before starting up on antimicrobials again. I was going to start back up on Candibactins once finished with interface. Please advise

  27. Hi Chris, I highly appreciate that you address biofilms. The above certainly helps to eradicate them. But how long will that eradication last? And what will grow in place of the eradiated biofilms? I wish you could elaborate on your actual clinical results such as for example treating gut problems and their recurrence.

    I like very much your general approach of treating root causes, which, however, I miss here… I hope you can accept me commenting on this :). So, why did those biofilms grow in there in the first place?

    – alpha-MSA is our natural defense against biofilms:
    May be the affected people have low levels of alpha-MSA? Did you measure this in patients? Do the blood levels relate to levels in the gut attacking the biofilms?

    – Or, salicylates encourage biofilm growth:
    Probably salicylate-rich food does the same. Did the patients with biofilms in the gut eat too much sals?

    – The big question is, what else predisposes a person eating a healthy diet to biofilm growth?

    Then, I would like to read about even more natural long-term strategies about keeping biofilms at bay. First ideas:
    – Maybe eating natto, the source of nattokinase, helps. I am not aware of studies of natto and gut biofilms, but at least natto safety is established by traditional consumption since millenia.
    – Sunshine increases alpha-MSH. I am not sure if the alpha-MSH in the blood is also the one that fights biofilms in the nose and the gut, or is it secreted there separately for that purpose?
    – You mention probiotics. Does not washing veggies too vigorously lead to a therapeutically effective amount of soil based organisms? Are they effective against biofilms?

    I would highly appreciate your esteemed opinion here or even kindly invite you to post an article on “we are ment to be free of pathogenic biofilms”

    PS: Aren’t large amounts of nattokinase & co as used in pills you recommend also destroying healthy biofilms? Healthy gut bacteria do live in biofilms, too! Isn’t your treatment potentially dangerous? Honestly, I do not see any principal difference between using antibiotics to kill “bad bugs” and pills to eradicate biofilms: both do not answer the question what will grow there as a replacement!

  28. Hi Chris, I highly appreciate that you address biofilms. The above certainly helps to eradicate them. But how long will that eradication last? And what will grow in place of the eradiated biofilms? I wish you could elaborate on your actual clinical results such as for example treating gut problems and their recurrence.

    I like very much your general approach of treating root causes, which, however, I miss here… I hope you can accept me commenting on this :). So, why did those biofilms grow in there in the first place?

    – alpha-MSH is our natural defense against biofilms:
    May be the affected people have low levels of alpha-MSH? Did you measure this in patients? Do the blood levels relate to levels in the gut attacking the biofilms?

    – Or, salicylates encourage biofilm growth:
    Probably salicylate-rich food does the same. Did the patients with biofilms in the gut eat too much sals?

    – The big question is, what else predisposes a person eating a healthy diet to biofilm growth?

    Then, I would like to read about even more natural long-term strategies about keeping biofilms at bay. First ideas:
    – Maybe eating natto, the source of nattokinase, helps. I am not aware of studies of natto and gut biofilms, but at least natto safety is established by traditional consumption since millenia.
    – Sunshine increases alpha-MSH. I am not sure if the alpha-MSH in the blood is also the one that fights biofilms in the nose and the gut, or is it secreted there separately for that purpose?
    – You mention probiotics. Does not washing veggies too vigorously lead to a therapeutically effective amount of soil based organisms? Are they effective against biofilms?

    I would highly appreciate your esteemed opinion here or even kindly invite you to post an article on “we are ment to be free of pathogenic biofilms”

    PS: Aren’t large amounts of nattokinase & co as used in pills you recommend also destroying healthy biofilms? Healthy gut bacteria do live in biofilms, too! Isn’t your treatment potentially dangerous?

  29. HCL for upper biofilms and allicidin, the active fraction of garlic works for the lower gi tract. Hyssinol works well along side HCl in chronic sinus issues. Infections in the mouth need to be cleared, as well as any interference fields in the head mouth neck area. Supplements from Premier Research Labs. You can test for biofilms using Quantum Reflex Analysis and special vials from life works potentials out of England. Frequency medicine using biocom can also be helpful in breaking down biofuels and addressing infections.

  30. Please could you let me know if I’m doing the right thing regarding a very antibiotic resistant Uti? I’m taking hiprex and vitamin, with D-mannose and interfase plus as I read about biofilm? An think this is what I have going on in my urinery tract? I can’t seem to get any advice from my urologist? An my GP is doing his best! I would like to know if I’m doing the right thing? An if you have any other ideas on how to treat this? Thank you

  31. Klaire labs interfase plus already contains EDTA, so is it necessary to use EDTA again as a third step?
    Thank you!

  32. Thank you for this great article, telling it like it is. I discovered my biofilm problem in 2014 while treating a parasite infection. Coffee enemas were the main tool of elimination. Not knowing what this ugly thing was, I took to the internet and pictures revealed that it was ropeworm, So thats what I called it for two years. I then discovered the medical community referring to it as biofilm, which makes sense to me, but most articles were suger coating this infection. I have successfully eliminated approximately 1000 feet of biofilm in 3 and a half years, it is my experience that you would definately want to eliminate these toxic matrixes whole if possible and not have them break up inside of you. Once they are disrupted they can make you feel ill until they are expelled. At times I felt there would never be an end, but there is an end, although I stay on strict maintenance because I think they grow back quickly. I will never be as sick as I was as these biofilms had been growing a long time, maybe decades. The lower colon ones were very well established, thick and rubbery , I felt tremendous physical relief when they exited, always with enemas. Primarily organic coffee enemas, but followed by a lemon water or apple cidar vinegar and water enema, very effective, It is a war for your health and they need to be out. My health has improved tremendously but I have learned so much about how we should be detoxing our bodies all the time and I always will. It could be my breast implants that has caused me all this grief and my next journey is to have them removed. Thanks for letting me share and please ask me any questions you might have, I’ve been through it all. Happy to share my knowledge as I know how awful it was to stumble through the dark, knowing I was sick but really zero help from doctors, what a sin

    • What protocol did I you use to get started. Can’t do enemas have pile and other problem. I would like to be in your shoe but don’t know how to starts

  33. Hi, i have recently been diagnosed with SIBO. I requested the test after years of frustration and medical test, labs et cetera. My current GI gave me xiflxon, but nothing more. I doubt it will be effective without trating it with neomycin and diflucan and have already purchased itegrative plus. How do i take the biofilm med with the antibiotics? Together or the biofilm initially. I would like yo be agressive for the first round of treatment and then switch over to a natural protocol with antimicobacterials, teas, pre and probitoics; in conjuction with tbe fodmap and gaps diet. I dont want a reaccurance, but feel my GI is out of the loop and i have had several GI docs. It is difficult to treat solo and without the gudance of an expwrt in SIBO…

  34. Im a little late on this thread but has anybody here used Biosolve PA on their biofilms ? Chris have you used it in your practice? Thanks all for any insight

  35. I have suffered from recurrent diarrhea that LITERALLY swims and pulses in the toilet, bloating, gas, weight gain, diabetes with gastroparesis, weird rash on arms. I am assuming I have SIBO and started taking DE and monolaurin. I take probiotics with 50 bil cfu and S. boulardii. Today I had the worst diarrhea to date (foaming and swimming) and am now feverish too. I couldn’t take it any more so my doc prescribed Cipro and Flagyl. I have Kirkman Biofilm defense coming in from Amazon next week (I am in remote village in AK). Should/can I take them together?

  36. Hello good doctors. I have treated my chronic nose sores with Medicated Chapstick applied in a thick layer inside the nose. For years I have tried every herbal remedy I could find on the internet and every single lip balm I could find. The medicated chapstick breaks down the stubborn seal (yellow/green sometimes leathery, sometimes less rigid) on these nose sores overnight. Simply amazing results, and a q-tip cleans out the debris completely the next morning with ease. What a relief. All other lip balms, ointments increased the pain and discomfort/irritation exponentially and seemed to strengthen the scabs tremendously. If there is an abscess the chapstick seems to draw out what is under the skin and I can just remove the discharge easily. Could one of you look into the ingredients and determine if the chapstick is breaking down the biofilm, perhaps, and if this is the reason it has been so effective for me? I am simply amazed at the results I achieve and nothing else has helped me with this pervasive, painful problem.

  37. So what is the suggested protocol for disrupting the biofilm? Take the biofilm disruptor product first for a month and THEN take an antifungal the following month? oR can you take a biofilm disruptor an hour before your antifungals?

  38. Does the EBV virus in particularly the virus that causes CAEBV have biofilms?
    If so what is a good enzyme to use for its treatment?
    I once was prescribed an enzyme that was harvested from the protective coating on earthworms (I know sounds really gross but when you are deathly sick I would take almost anything).
    I can’t remember the exact name of it but it was from the family of kinases. Do you know which one it might be?

  39. After I used biofilms disruptors irresponsibly (way too high doses) I developed a parasitic hyperinfection that i am now treating with medication. Now that my infection is stabilized, I need to try biofilms disruptors again, in appropriate doses, but I am concerned about my ability to expel the biofilms remnants. I would prefer not do regular enemas, as I am taking medication and do not want to lessen the concentration in my system. Are there recommended ways of flushing the biofilms toxins after they get disrupted?

  40. Does anyone have experience overlapping antibiotic with antifungal medications? There’s research out there that supports that the underlying mechanism to this combination therapy may be iron chelation.

    • I am taking both doxycycline and fluconazol. It does not appear to be disrupting biofilms. I still plan to add a disruptor supplement. ..Interesting about iron chelation though. I recently had to add an iron supplement due to a marked deficiency. I’m also vegan though, which can cause that.

  41. Hey Chris
    I am stocking up to start the antimicrobial for SIBO. Can you help my chose between Klaire and Kirkland for biofilm distruption? Also, Iberogast is great at helping me release trapped gas but it has never helped my motility. For the first time ever Senna isn’t even working on me. Lastly, my first run with Prescript Assist was SO painful. I want to stick with it this time to let it kill the bacteria. How long term does the die-off cause discomfort?

    My functional practitioner took your training and handed me your anti microbial protocol. She is an established physician, but new to Functional Medicine. I feel like I am her first ISBO case to treat. There were handouts and base advice but not enough experience to answer questions about variables and such. Thank you MUCH

  42. I am not a doctor. I am a patient suffering from Hidrenitist supurativa, rhumatoid cystic arthristist, they even did blood work to see if I have lupus. My inflamation is off the charts and even shows up in ctc scans. but rhuematoid numbers were not right for it to be that. They are sending me to a ruhematologist anyways.
    I seriously think I have a biofilm issue. My HS only heals after surgical removal of tissue and skin transplant. I think I have the kind that goes deep into the tissue bed because they keep telling me I have a healthy wound bed but no healing is occuring. Infact my wounds are spreading and when they inflame so do my joints.
    I have had fungus issues all my life. I have had dreams I am a fungus queen and mushrooms and moss grow wherever I walk.
    People who have HS said they only found certain diets to work but the other half say the diets are placebo and they notice no difference. I am all for placebos if they are making me feel better.
    I want to improve my diet but I do not agree with the diets people are doing. I think they actually make themselves allergic to foods they would never had any issues with if they had not made their bodies super sensitive to them making their living conditions even more of a nightmare. I would like to eat more foods that break up Biofilms… unfortunately if I was on one of their diets I think every single one of them is forbidden. Their poor bodies are complete hostages to their hosts.
    Please keep us informed. I know the knowledge is new but I do not think the situation is. I think its been around for a long time. I mean we know that the kids that survived the plague had silver spoons in their mouths after all.

  43. Dr. Kresser, do you have a particular regimen of the products recommended in this article that one should follow in disrupting & ridding themselves of biofilm? Thank you.

  44. Is there an Anti-Biofilm regimen you’ve designed of the products mentioned on this page? Thank you.

  45. My 30 yr. Old daughter has late stage Lyme and a huge biofilm, intestinal parasites. Hiw can she get rid of the biofilm?

  46. The best thing I have found for this is coffee enemas and mimosa Pudica by Microbe it does release bio film from the wall of the intestine. they also have binders to take after to absorb the toxins in the intestine.

  47. Do not take oregano oil. It is just as damaging as antibiotics. Dealing with the pain of just taking one capsule of it currently. You have been warned! If you want the benefits, include oregano (the herb itself) not the concentrated form (oil) in your diet. Good luck towards healing!!!

  48. Was very sick and depressed when I discovered a biofilm infection, didn’t know what it was, thought it was rope worm, I’ve been eliminating it since November 2014, and can happily say I’ve finally reached the end, I am so much healthier, I feel like myself again, so grateful I learned I had it and worked hard at removing it, I will be in maintenance the rest of my life but that’s ok. I would say the protocol that Worked wonders was coffee enemas, never had heard of them, took awhile to get into the groove, but not sure I could have removed biofilm without them, sometimes I thought it would never end, but it does and it’s so worth the effort!